LA RICERCA SCIENTIFICA SULLE BACCHE DI GOJI
Le bacche di Goji sono state oggetto di vari studi scientifici in tutto il mondo, soprattutto in Giappone, Cina, Svizzera e Stati Uniti e i risultati sono stati pubblicati in numerose riviste scientifiche. Una ricerca su PubMed – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health – stima più di 100 articoli presenti sulle proprietà benefiche del Lycium barbarum (bacche di Goji). Alcune di queste pubblicazioni riconoscono gli effetti del frutto del Goji sulle malattie cellulari / tumorali e sono riportate qui di seguito.
IL FRUTTO DEL GOJI E L’IPERCOLESTEROLEMIA ED IL DIABETE
Uno studio del College di Sanità Pubblica presso l’Università di Wuhan, ha testato l’effetto dell’estratto delle Bacche di Goji sul diabete, sull’ipercolesterolemia e sull’ipetrigliceridemia. Gli scienziati hanno trovato un aumento considerevole del colesterolo HDL o colesterolo buono nei soggetti ai quali venivano somministrate regolarmente delle dosi di bacche di Goji. I medici ritengono che l’HDL tenda a rimuovere il colesterolo dalle arterie e dalle placche, ritardandone in questo modo lo sviluppo; inoltre un livello elevato di HDL sembrerebbe proteggere da infarti miocardici. Le bacche di Goji ridurrebbero anche i livelli di glucosio nel sangue in maniera significativa.
Life Sci. 2004 Nov 26;76(2):137- 49 “Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarum”, Luo Q, Cai Y, Yan J, Sun M, Corke H. Source: College of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, PR China. PubMed.Gov – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Abstract: “The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium barbarum fruit water decoction, crude polysaccharide extracts (crude LBP), and purified polysaccharide fractions (LBP-X) in alloxan-induced diabetic or hyperlipidemic rabbits were investigated through designed sequential trials and by measuring blood glucose and serum lipid parameters. Total antioxidant capacity was also assessed using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. It was found that the three Lycium barbarum fruit extracts/fractions could significantly reduce blood glucose levels and serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations and at same time markedly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels after 10 days treatment in tested rabbits, indicating that there were substantial hypoglycemic and hypolipidemiceffects. Hypoglycemic effect of LBP-X was more significant than those of water decoction and crude LBP, but its hypolipidemic effect seemed to be weaker. Total antioxidant capacity assay showed that all three Lycium barbarum extracts/fractions possessed antioxidant activity. However, water and methanolc fruit extracts and crude polysaccharide extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than purified polysaccharide fractions because crude extracts were identified to be rich in antioxidants (carotenoids, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, nicotinic acid). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (glycocojugates), containing several monosaccharides and 17 aminoacids, were major bioactive constituents of hypoglycemic effect. Both polysaccharides and vitamin antioxidants from Lycium barbarum fruits were possible active principles of hypolipidemic effect”
IL FRUTTO LYCIUM BARBARUM CONTRO L’IPERTENSIONE ED I DANNI OCULARI MACULARI
I risultati di una ricerca condotta dal Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell’Università medica di Bejing, ha mostrato come l’aumento della pressione sanguigna nei ratti ipertesi può essere prevenuta in modo significativo con il trattamento dei polisaccaridi contenuti nel frutto del Lycium Barbarum. Il Gruppo di “Ricerca Alimenti e Antiossidanti” dell’Università di Kowloon, Hong Kong, ha dimostrato che mangiando Goji, si aumenta notevolmente il livello di zeaxantina nel sangue. Un pigmento liposolubile noto per aiutare a prevenire la degenerazione maculare della retina, dovuta all’età, la causa più frequente di perdita della vista. Il Goji è perciò un valido aiuto nei disturbi della vista dovuti al computer come stanchezza, secchezza oculare o visione confusa.
Br J Nutr. 2005 Jan;93(1):123-30. “Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial”, Cheng CY, Chung WY, Szeto YT, Benzie IF, Source: Antioxidant Research Group, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China. PubMed.Gov – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Abstract: “Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disorder that causes irreversible loss of central vision. Increased intake of foods containing zeaxanthin may be effective in preventing AMD because the macula accumulates zeaxanthin and lutein, oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and blue light-absorbing properties. Lycium barbarum L. is a small red berry known as Fructus lycii and wolfberry in the West, and Kei Tze and Gou Qi Zi in Asia. Wolfberry is rich in zeaxanthin dipalmitate, and is valued in Chinese culture for being good for vision. The aim of this study, which was a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, human intervention trial of parallel design, was to provide data on how fasting plasma zeaxanthin concentration changes as a result of dietary supplementation with whole wolfberries. Fasting blood was collected from healthy, consenting subjects; fourteen subjects took 15 g/d wolfberry (estimated to contain almost 3 mg zeaxanthin) for 28 d. Repeat fasting blood was collected on day 29. Age- and sex-matched controls (n 13) took no wolfberry. Responses in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. After supplementation, plasma zeaxanthin increased 2.5-fold: mean values on day 1 and 29 were 0.038 (sem 0.003) and 0.096 (sem 0.009) micromol/l (P<0.01), respectively, for the supplementation group; and 0.038 (sem 0.003) and 0.043 (sem 0.003) micromol/l (P>0.05), respectively, for the control group. This human supplementation trial shows that zeaxanthin in whole wolfberries is bioavailable and that intake of a modest daily amount markedly increases fasting plasma zeaxanthin levels. These new data will support further study of dietary strategies to maintain macular pigment density”.
Sheng Li Xue Bao. 1998 Jun;50(3):309-14. “The effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on vascular tension in two – kidney, one clip model of hypertension”, [Article in Chinese] Jia YX, Dong JW, Wu XX, Ma TM, Shi AY. Source: Department of Pathophysiology, Beijing Medical University, Beijing 100083. PubMed.Gov – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Abstract: “In the present study, the effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on endothelial function in the two-kidney, one clip model of hypertension were observed. The results showed that the increase of blood pressure in hypertension rats (HR) could be prevented significantly by treatment with 10% LBP. In isolated aortic rings of LBP-treated rats, the contraction of phenylephrine (PE) was reduced as compared with HR rats. Removal of the endothelium abolished the difference of PE-induced vasoconstriction among groups. In vitro incubation of aortic rings from LBP-treated rats with methyl blue (MB) or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased the magnitude of PE-induced contraction. Meanwhile the response to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly increased in LBP-treated rats, but the response to nitroprusside had no significant difference among groups. Pretreatment with L-arginine partially restored ACh-induced relaxation in RH rats, but no effect in LBP-treated rats. These results suggested that the role of LBP in decreasing vasoconstriction to PE may be mediated by increase of the effects or/and production of endothelium-derived relaxation factor (EDRF). LBP increased formation of EDRF may be related to increase the substrate of EDRF”
AZIONE ANTITUMORALE DEL FRUTTO LYCIUM BARBARUM
Il College di Scienza e Tecnologia dell’Università di Huazhong, ha studiato il polisaccaride complesso “LBP3p” contenuto nel frutto del Goji e in particolare il suo effetto sul sistema immunitario dei topi. E’ stato constatato che questo polisaccaride potrebbe inibire significativamente la crescita dei tumori aumentando la formazione di macrofagi e linfociti, cellule del sistema immunitario in grado di combattere e distruggere le cellule neoplastiche.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Apr;4 (4):563-9. “Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum”, Gan L, Hua Zhang S, Liang Yang X, Bi Xu H. Source: Institute of Materia Medica, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. PubMed.Gov – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Abstract: “The modulation of a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum (LBP3p) on the immune system in S180-bearing mice was investigated. The mice inoculated with S180 cell suspension were treated p.o. with LBP3p (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) for 10 days. The effects of LBP3p on transplantable tumors and macrophage phagocytosis, quantitative hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (QHS), lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression and lipid peroxidation were studied. LBP3p could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma S180 and increase macrophage phagocytosis, the form of antibody secreted by spleen cells, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, CTL activity, IL-2 mRNA expression level and reduce the lipid peroxidation in S180-bearing mice. The effect is not dose-dependent in a linear fashion. A total of 10 mg/kg dose is more effective than 5 and 20 mg/kg doses. This suggests that LBP3p at 10 mg/kg has a highly significant effect on tumor weight and improves the immune system”
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- “A review of botanical characteristic, phytochemistry, clinical revelance in efficacy and safety of Lycium Barbarum fruit (Goji)”. Autori: Harunobu Amagase & Norman R. Farnsworth. Edito da Food Research International. Anno 2011.
- “A randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Study of the General Effects of a Standardized Lycium Barbarum (Goji) Juice. GoChi”. Autori: Harunobu Amagase & Dwight M. Nance. Edito da The Gournal of alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 14, N 4, pp 403-412. Anno 2008;
- Amagase H., Sun B., Nance D., “Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects”. J. Med. Food., 2009, 12, 1159–1165;
- “Goji Berry Effects on Macular Characteristics and Plasma Antioxidant Levels”. Autori: Bucheli P., Vidal K, Lisong S., Zhencheng Gu, Zhang C., Miller L. E. & Junkuan Wang. Edito da Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 88, N 2, pp 257-262. Anno 2010;
- “Chemical characterization of Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of hight-fat mice”. Autori: Hua-Tao Wu, Xue-Juan He, Ying-Kai Hong, Tao Ma, Yan-Ping Xu & Hui-Hua Li. Edito da International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol 46, pp 540-543. Anno 2010;
- “Use of Anti-aging Herbal Medicine, Lycium Barbarum, Against Aging-associated Diseases. Why Do We Know So Far?” Autori: Chuen-Chung Chang R. & Kwok-Fai So. Edito da Cell Mol Neurobiol, Vol 28, pp 643-653. Anno 2008;
- “Lycium Barbarum (Goji) juice improves, in vivo antioxidant, biomarkers in serum of health adults”. Autori: Harunobu Amagase, Buxiang Sun & Carmia Borek. Edito da Nutrition Research, Vol 20, pp 19-25. Anno 2009;